Part VII - The Apostle Paul in Galatians

The Apostle Paul's Epistle to the Galatians is considered perhaps the second most important writing of the Bible after Romans to those who propound the theologies of the so-called "reformers" under the mantle of supposedly "following the Bible." As this position was amply dealt with in discussing Romans, it will not be necessary to reinvent the wheel in vindicating Galatians from the same misunderstandings.

In this section we will look at the last five chapters of Galatians. But first it is worth noting that when the Apostle Paul declared in chapter one that "[t]hough we, or an angel from heaven, preach a gospel to you besides that which we have preached to you, let him be anathema. As we said before, so now I say again: If any one preach to you a gospel, besides that which you have received, let him be anathema" (Gal. 1:8-9) that this condemnation applies directly to the Protestant notions of sola fide, merely imputed righteousness, and eternal security. Having already shown this in the non-Pauline writings of the NT and also in Romans, let us move on to consider what Galatians has to say on these subjects in his epistle to the Galatians.

1 ...[A]fter fourteen years, I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2 And I went up according to revelation; and communicated to them the gospel, which I preach among the Gentiles, but apart to them who seemed to be some thing: lest perhaps I should run, or had run in vain. [1]
In other words, Paul subjected his preaching to the Apostles so make sure that he was preaching nothing differently from anyone else. The Apostle Paul noted earlier in Galatians 1 that after his Damascus experience he went "into Arabia and returned to Damascus". Then, "after three years, I went to Jerusalem to see Peter: and I tarried with him fifteen days. But other of the apostles I saw none, saving James the brother of the Lord" (Galatians 1:17-18). So the Apostle Paul was clearly associated with Peter and James whose writings we have already examined. And the Apostle Paul's congruity with the preaching of the Apostle Peter was affirmed by the Apostle in his second epistle (2 Pet. 3:14). Logically this would also apply to the Apostle James who is one of the "pillars" along with Cephas and John according to Paul (Gal. 2:9) unless the Apostle James' teaching differed dramatically from that of St. Peter and St. Paul. There is no compelling reason to presume that this is the case - particularly since the Apostle Paul admits that after fourteen years of preaching, he submitted his preaching before the Apostles in Jerusalem. This would presumably include the Apostles Peter, James, and John who were the closest to Our Lord.

It seems reasonable for the reader to take into account the passages from Peter, James, and John when seeking to properly interpret the epistles of the Apostle Paul because his teachings were no different then theirs. As we have seen with the writings of the Apostles Peter, James, John, and Jude, their teachings were identical to those of Our Lord and Saviour in the Gospels. If the testimony of the Apostle Peter and also of the Apostle Paul is to be believed, St. Paul's teachings are identical to Our Lordís as well in the areas where they discuss the same topics. And as (i) Our Lord did discuss Justification and how we were to be justified and (ii) sola fide was nowhere to be found in the Gospels and (iii) nor was it found in the chapters of Romans we looked at already. (And we covered all of the key areas of Romans that Protestants cite to justify [no pun intended] their theology of sola fide). Nor will they be found in Galatians either but instead it is another predominant theme being discussed that was the dominant theme in Romans: the "works of the law". But we will get to that as we go through the epistle.

3 But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Gentile, was compelled to be circumcised. 4 But because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privately to spy our liberty, which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into servitude. 5 To whom we yielded not by subjection, no not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel might continue with you. 6 But of them who seemed to be some thing, (what they were some time, it is nothing to me, God accepteth not the person of man,) for to me they that seemed to be some thing added nothing. 7 But contrariwise, when they had seen that to me was committed the gospel of the uncircumcision, as to Peter was that of the circumcision. 8 (For he who wrought in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, wrought in me also among the Gentiles.) 9 And when they had known the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship: that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the circumcision: 10 Only that we should be mindful of the poor: which same thing also I was careful to do. 11 But when Cephas was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed. [2]
Frankly it was rather hypocritical of St. Paul to reproach St. Peter here. Arguably the Apostle Peter - though wrong in his actions - was not wrong in principle  when St. Paul reproached him. But later on, the Apostle Paul would "for fear of giving offense to the Jews" have Timothy circumcised (Acts 16:1-3). This incident almost certainly happened before Galatians was written. In light of his criticisms of the Apostle Peter for acting as he did -- and also out of fear of the Jews -- Paul was being a bit hypocritical. And if the reader examines the Apostle Paul's words in Romans 14:1-23 and 1 Corinthians 10:23-31, they will see that the Apostle Peter in principle acted correctly . (Even if he did not choose the best possible way to manifest this principle.) But enough on that subject as Protestants love to exalt the Apostle Paul's rebuke of the Apostle Peter and then ignore what in essence could be called "retractions of St. Paul." (Where he endorses the same principle being applied by the Apostle Peter at Antioch in the epistles noted above.)

By contrast to those epistles, Galatians was a rather polemical epistle. In that light, we can expect the Apostle who is defending his own authority to do so at the expense of another - in this case the Apostle Peter. Having noted that, we can continue with the Apostle's dissertation:

12 For before that some came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them who were of the circumcision. 13 And to his dissimulation the rest of the Jews consented, so that Barnabas also was led by them into that dissimulation. 14 But when I saw that they walked not uprightly unto the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all: If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of the Gentiles, and not as the Jews do, how dost thou compel the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? 15 We by nature are Jews, and not of the Gentiles sinners. 16 But knowing that man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, we also believe in Christ Jesus, that we may be justified by the faith of Christ and not by the works of the law: because by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified.[3]
Notice again, it is the works of the law that the Apostle Paul is condemning here, not all works indiscriminately. Indeed if he was attempting to do the latter, he would be preaching a different Gospel than the other Apostles and be under his own anathema (cf.Gal. 1:8-9). It is interesting that the Apostle Peter's actions were seen as a form of compulsion by the Apostle Paul - indeed even St. Paul's companion St. Barnabas was following the Apostle Peter's example. If the two Apostles were of essentially the same rank, it seems unlikely that the Apostle Paul's closest followers would be so easily influenced by the conduct of St. Peter that the Apostle Paul would feel the need to rebuke him to save face.
17 But if while we seek to be justified in Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners; is Christ then the minister of sin? God forbid. 18 For if I build up again the things which I have destroyed, I make myself a prevaricator. For I, through the law, am dead to the law that I may live to God; with Christ I am nailed to the cross. 20 And I live, now not I: but Christ liveth in me. And that I live now in the flesh: I live in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and delivered himself for me. 21 I cast not away the grace of God. For if justice be by the law, then Christ died in vain.[4]
In other words, Christ lives in us and thus to a Christian, we perform works not of our own but instead they are the works of God. If justice was not by grace but instead was by law, then Christ's death was meaningless. Anyway, back to Galatians and the Apostle Paul's clear references to justification by faith apart from the works of the law:
1 O senseless Galatians, who hath bewitched you that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been set forth, crucified among you? 2 This only would I learn of you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law or by the hearing of faith? 3 Are you so foolish, that, whereas you began in the Spirit, you would now be made perfect by the flesh? 4 Have you suffered so great things in vain? If it be yet in vain. 5 He therefore who giveth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you; doth he do it by the works of the law or by the hearing of the faith? 6 As it is written: Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice. 7 Know ye therefore, that they who are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. 8 And the scripture, foreseeing, that God justifieth the Gentiles by faith, told unto Abraham before: In thee shall all nations be blessed. 9 Therefore they that are of faith, shall be blessed with faithful Abraham. 10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under a curse. For it is written: Cursed is every one that abideth, not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. 11 But that in the law no man is justified with God, it is manifest: because the just man liveth by faith. 12 But the law is not of faith: but he that doth those things shall live in them. 13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us (for it is written: Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree).14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Christ Jesus: that we may receive the promise of the Spirit by faith. 15 Brethren (I speak after the manner of man,) yet a man's testament, if it be confirmed, no man despiseth, nor addeth to it. 16 To Abraham were the promises made and to his seed. He saith not, And to his seeds, as of many: but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. [5]
As the proper understanding of Abraham's faith in Genesis was detailed in the discussion on Romans, it will not be reiterated here. But it is worth noting in the next section how what was detailed about the law being subsequent to the time of Abraham is detailed in Galatians very similarly to what was covered in the early discussion of the epistle to the Romans:
17 Now this I say: that the testament which was confirmed by God, the law which was made after four hundred and thirty years doth not disannul, to make the promise of no effect. 18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise. But God gave it to Abraham by promise. 19 Why then was the law? It was set because of transgressions, until the seed should come to whom he made the promise, being ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. 20 Now a mediator is not of one: but God is one. 21 Was the law then against the promises of God: God forbid! For if there had been a law given which could give life, verily justice should have been by the law. 22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise, by the faith of Jesus Christ, might be given to them that believe. 23 But before the faith came, we were kept under the law shut up, unto that faith which was to be revealed. 24 Wherefore the law was our pedagogue in Christ: that we might be justified by faith. 25 But after the faith is come, we are no longer under a pedagogue. 26 For you are all the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus. 27 For as many of you as have been baptized in Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek: there is neither bond nor free: there is neither male nor female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you be Christ's, then are you the seed of Abraham, heirs according to the promise.[6]
The reader is asked to notice the reiteration of the theme of Jew and Gentile from the earlier examination of Romans 3 and Romans 4. This is crystal clear evidence - along with the many references to the law and its arrival four hundred odd years after Abraham - that the Apostle Paul was not denigrating works in toto but works of the law. This is clear and unequivocal in both Romans and Galatians if the text is approached without Luther/Calvin coloured glasses on.

Indeed this is not even limited to followers of Luther and Calvin. Instead anyone who claims that the Apostle Paul denigrated charitable works in their active role of justification is woefully in error. It is quite simple really, our faith indeed justifies us and we are not justified by the works of the law. The works of the law were not performed out of love of God and neighbour for God's sake but instead by obligation and out of fear. The two could not be more diametrically opposite of one another but Protestant theologians continually confuse the two. Again to reiterate it, the works condemned by the Apostle are works of the law. By contrast, the works that justify are works of charity and they are performed out of love of God and neighbour for God's sake.When we do such things, it is not us who act but indeed Christ who acts in us (cf. Gal. 2:20). This is necessary to properly understand because our faith must be supplemented with many factors culminating in supernatural charity. This theme continues in chapter four of the Galatian epistle.

1 Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all; 2 But is under tutors and governors until the time appointed by the father: 3 So we also, when we were children, were serving under the elements of the world. 4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under  the law: 5 That he might redeem them who were under the law: that we might receive the adoption of sons. 6 And because you are sons, God hath sent the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying: Abba, Father. 7 Therefore now he is not a servant, but a son. And if a son, an heir also through God. 8 But then indeed, not knowing God, you served them, who, by nature, are not gods. 9 But now, after that you have known God, or rather are known by God: how turn you again to the weak and needy elements, which you desire to serve again? 10 You observe days, and months, and times, and years. 11 I am afraid of you, lest perhaps I have laboured in vain among you. [7]
The whole chapter is referring to those that were on the verge of embracing the law or viewing the ceremonies and observances of the law as necessary. This is what the Apostle Paul so venomously opposes. Observe what the Apostle says in the subsequent verses of this chapter:
12 Be ye as I, because I also am as you: brethren, I beseech you: you have not injured me at all. 13 And you know, how through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the gospel to you heretofore: and your temptation in my flesh, 14 You despised not, nor rejected: but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. 15 Where is then your blessedness? For I bear you witness, that, if it could be done, you would have plucked out your own eyes, and would have given them to me. 16 Am I then become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? 17 They are zealous in your regard not well: but they would exclude you, that you might be zealous for them. 18 But be zealous for that which is good in a good thing always: and not only when I am present with you. 19 My little children, of whom I am in labour again, until Christ be formed in you. 20 And I would willingly be present with you now, and change my voice: because I am ashamed for you. 21 Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, have you not read the law? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons: the one by a bondwoman, and the other by a free woman. 23 But he who was of the bondwoman, was born according to the flesh: but he of the free woman, was by promise. 24 Which things are said by an allegory. For these are the two testaments. The one from mount Sina, engendering unto bondage; which is Agar: 25 For Sina is a mountain in Arabia, which hath affinity to that Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. 26 But that Jerusalem, which is above, is free: which is our mother. 27 For it is written: Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not: break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for many are the children of the desolate, more than of her that hath a husband. 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he, that was born according to the flesh, persecuted him that was after the spirit; so also it is now. 30 But what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son; for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the free woman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not the children of the bondwoman but of the free: by the freedom wherewith Christ has made us free. [8]
It is quite obvious that Paul is hardly condemning the necessity of good works in Galatians because his emphasis is constantly on the law. This was an epistle written to the Judaizers who believed that to be a Christian someone had to be circumcised and keep the law to be justified. The Apostle Paul is telling them that they are justified by faith in Jesus Christ not by the Mosaic Law which they seem to want to embrace. This theme continues in chapter five but notice that Paul mentions works of charity in both chapters five and six which are different from works of the law:
1 Stand fast, and be not held again under the yoke of bondage. 2 Behold, I Paul tell you, that if you be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. 3 And I testify again to every man circumcising himself that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 4 You are made void of Christ, you who are justified in the law: you are fallen from grace. 5 For we in spirit, by faith, wait for the hope of justice. 6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing nor uncircumcision: but faith that worketh by Charity. [9]
This is one of the few areas in all of Galatians where works of charity are mentioned. Also, this section deals another Scriptural death knell to the concept of "eternal security". To quote Catholic writer 'Matt1618' on the matter:
The law which attempts to obligate God to salvation by man performing circumcision or any other thing puts them outside of Godís grace. The law had a written code, which included all the obligations which meant one would have to be 100% perfect. For those who attempt to gain salvation in that way, even one failing condemns them. No one can meet that standard. However, through Christ, we have an adoptive sonship. The context here is justification. Paul contrasts the law that brings condemnation to that grace through which we are justified. He does not write faith alone. He writes that it is through the Spirit that we are justified. In the next chapter he calls it Ďthe law of the Spirit' (6:2). Through the Spirit, we have the hope (not guarantee) of righteousness (Gal. 5:4). How is this played out in the context of justification and salvation, not sanctification? Not only is it faith and hope, but by what Paul writes is faith working through love. Many will relegate this part of Paulís writing in Galatians 5 and 6 to that of mere sanctification. However, the word sanctification is not used in Galatians 5 or 6. Verse 3 shows what Paulís emphasis is - justification. He continues to speak of those who are justified who go back into the works of the law, will not be justified and will fall from grace. One can fall from grace only if one is in that state of grace in the first place. Thus, here Paul shows us the very real possibility of losing oneís salvation. We must have faith, hope, and love, and continue in that in order to remain in that grace. In Gal. 5:6, Paul writes that faith must work through love in the very context of salvation. Paul is not writing that love is merely an effect, but a necessary cause. This reflects Paul's language in 1 Cor. 13:2, that one can have all the faith in the world but if it does not include love, we are nothing. This again reflects the Council of Trent's language on justification...[10]
In other words, faith must be active and not passive. It must produce works in love to complete it (Matt. 7:21; Mark 11:25; Luke 6:43-49; John 3:21; 2 Pet. 1:5-11; James 2:21ff; 1 John 3:7; 4:12,16; Jude 1:20-21), not as a mere afterthought or to "demonstrate" one's faith.Also, by the Apostleís literal words, he is clearly stating that active faith working by charity avails something. For he emphasizes previously that "neither circumcision nor uncircumcision availeth anything but faith that worketh by charity". So if faith that worketh by charity availeth us something, how can anyone say that works of some kind are not involved in the process of our justification??? Thus we are justified by our conduct with faith as the foundation but not the totality our justification. Paul emphasizes that works of the law avail nothing but works of charity do. Therefore, the Apostle Paul refutes the notion of sola fide and aligns himself solidly with Our Lord and the other Apostles who taught the same teaching. Unless the reader wants to presume that the Apostle Paul really ran in vain of course (cf. Gal. 2:2).
7 You did run well, who hath hindered you, that you should not obey the truth? 8 This persuasion is not from him that calleth you. 9 A little leaven corrupteth the whole lump. 10 I have confidence in you in the Lord: that you will not be of another mind: but he that troubleth you, shall bear the judgment, whosoever he be. 11 And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? Then is the scandal of the cross made void. 12 I would they were even cut off, who trouble you. 13 For you, brethren, have been called unto liberty: only make not liberty an occasion to the flesh, but by charity of the spirit serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled in one word: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 15 But if you bite and devour one another; take heed you be not consumed one of another. 16 I say then, walk in the spirit, and you shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh. 17 For the flesh lusteth against the spirit: and the spirit against the flesh; for these are contrary one to another: so that you do not the things that you would. 18 But if you are led by the spirit, you are not under the law. 19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest: which are fornication, uncleanness, immodesty, luxury, 20 Idolatry, witchcrafts, enmities, contentions, emulations, wraths, quarrels, dissensions, sects, 21 Envies, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like. Of the which I foretell you, as I have foretold to you, that they who do such things shall not obtain the kingdom of God. [11]
Again, this recapitulates what the Apostle Paul said in Romans 13:8-10. It recapitulates what the other Apostles noted in many texts already covered. It further recapitulates what Our Lord noted in several texts most notably the one where He was asked the most important commandments of the law (cf. Matt. 22:34-40).

But what about someone who does not do as Paul and the other teachers of the Scriptures state is necessary??? What about someone who does the things condemned by the Apostle Paul above and says "ah but I am 'saved' because I have 'accepted Jesus as my personal Lord and Saviour'"??? Notice the five "works of the flesh" in bold print above. Those were the very cornerstones of the sixteenth century so-called "reformation" which was in essence a movement of heated dissention the tone of which was contentious. The movement placed groups within the Church at emnity with one another, and the fruits of this upheaval have been a massive proliferation of sects all of which set up two golden calves of sola scriptura and sola fide as their idols. Thus, the Protestant "reformation" could be said to apply to the condemnation of the Apostle Paul here.

22 But the fruit of the Spirit is, charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity, 23 Mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity. Against such there is no law. 24 And they that are Christ's, have crucified their flesh, with the vices and concupiscences. 25 If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. 26 Let us not be made desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying on another. [12]
If (i) the fruit of the spirit is "charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity, [m]ildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity" and (ii) if "against these there is no law", then (iii) it is patently ridiculous to assert that these works in any way fall under the condemnation of the Apostle Paul and the law of grace.
1 Brethren, and if a man be overtaken in any fault, you, who are spiritual, instruct such a one in the spirit of meekness, considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted. 2 Bear ye one another's burdens: and so you shall fulfil the law of Christ. 3 For if any man think himself to be some thing, whereas he is nothing, he deceiveth himself. 4 But let every one prove his own work: and so he shall have glory in himself only and not in another. 5 For every one shall bear his own burden. 6 And let him that is instructed in the word communicate to him that instructeth him, in all good things. 7 Be not deceived: God is not mocked. 8 For what things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap. For he that soweth in his flesh of the flesh also shall reap corruption. But he that soweth in the spirit of the spirit shall reap life everlasting. 9 And in doing good, let us not fail. For in due time we shall reap, not failing. 10 Therefore, whilst we have time, let us work good to all men, but especially to those who are of the household of the faith. 11 See what a letter I have written to you with my own hand. 12 For as many as desire to please in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised, only that they may not suffer the persecution of the cross of Christ. 13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law but they will have you to be circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. 14 But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ: by whom the world is crucified to me, and I to the world. 15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision: but a new creature. 16 And whosoever shall follow this rule, peace on them and mercy: and upon the Israel of God. 17 From henceforth let no man be troublesome to me: for I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus in my body. 18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen. [13]
The words "a new creature" hardly imply "imputed righteousness" but instead the Catholic concept of infused righteousness: the grace of God penetrating the inner man and transforming him into an instrument of God rather then an instrument of Satan (cf. Rom. 6:3-11). This is why using Romans or Galatians to preach against doing good works as a necessary part of completing one's faith is to engage in a non-sequitur. In neither Romans nor Galatians was the Apostle Paul condemning the sort of faith that worketh by charity which was spoken of by the Apostles Peter, James, John, or Jude. (Not to mention of the sort which Our Lord has explicitly said we will be judged by.) The primary and overriding thrust of Romans and Galatians was condemning the works of the law as the means whereby man is justified. As we noted in the prelude to the epistles of the Apostle Paul, the OT made it clear that what the law was intended to do was impress right conduct upon the heart of man. In that sense the Jew has an advantage over the Gentile. But to those who sought to use the law to buy their salvation, they were integrally incapable of succeeding. For if the law is the judge, no one can be saved whereas if salvation is by an active faith in Christ Jesus, salvation is possible for all men.

The entire thrust of the discussion about Abraham was to refute the notion of the necessity of the law for salvation. For Abraham the Patriarch of the nation did not have the law. By the reasoning of the Judaizers, he could not have been saved but all of Israel knew that Abraham was a model of righteousness for everyone to follow. In summation: Abraham was justified by an active faith apart from Torah. That really is the underlying thrust of the references to him by the Apostle Paul in Romans and Galatians. (Along with the emphasis on how those who were in Christ Jesus were children of Abraham according to the promise.) The Apostle did mention the necessity of an active faith in -- most notably Romans 2 and Galatians 6. (With a couple of small notations in Galatians 2 and 5 also). But those who seek to twist the words of Paul in Romans and Galatians to appropriate them for a false sola fide doctrine or an unbiblical notion ofimputation as opposed to integral righteousness are twisting the words of Paul to their own destruction as the Apostle Peter warned (2 Pet. 3:14-17). For faith requires works to be completed. (Matt. 7:21; Mark 11:25; Luke 6:43-49; John 3:21; 2 Pet. 1:5-11; James 2:21ff; 1 John 3:7; 4:12,16; Jude 1:20-21, etc.) And as the Apostle Paul notes in his other epistles, this view is one that he indeed shared for he did not run or labour in vain pace Protestant implicit allegations that he did just that.


[1] Galatians 2:1-2

[2] Galatians 2:3-11

[3] Galatians 2:12-16

[4] Galatians 2:17-31

[5] Galatians 3:1-16

[6] Galatians 3:17-29

[7] Galatians 4:1-11

[8] Galatians 4:12-31

[9] Galatians 5:1-6

[10] 'Matt1618': Excerpt from his essay "Paul, Faith, Works, Obedience, Righteousness, and Salvation" (c. 2000)

[11] Galatians 5:7-21

[12] Galatians 5:22-25

[13] Galatians 6ff

Other Notes:

The Scripture citations unless otherwise noted were taken from an online Douay-Rheims Bible that is similar in many ways to the online Douay-Rheims Bible located at the following link:

The citation from 'Matt1618' was taken from his essay "Paul, Faith, Works, Obedience, Righteousness, and Salvation" located at the following link:
©2003, 2000, "Justification by Faith Working in Love", written by I. Shawn McElhinney. This text may be downloaded or printed out for private reading, but it may not be uploaded to another Internet site or published, electronically or otherwise, without express written permission from the author.

To All Visitors, Grace of Christ to you!

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