I stated in an email to a Protestant that nobody believed in Sola Fide, or Salvation by Faith Alone for 15 centuries. He responded by showing some quotes from various Church Fathers that to him, showed that some indeed believed in Sola Fide in at least some way, even if they did not write as comprehensively on the matter as Calvin or Luther would do in the 16th century. He sent statements from these Church Fathers that he claimed showed they believed in some form of Sola Fide. I did some research on these individual Church Fathers and found that absolutely none of them believed in Sola Fide or anything close to that. Below are the contents of the letter that I was sent, and my response to that letter. I have not cut out any of his letter to me in regards to this issue. I quote directly from the Church Fathers themselves to show what they actually believed in salvation. His letter is in green. My response to him is in black.
***8/02 I have just recently updated this piece. I originally gave all the quotes from the individual books that the Church Fathers have written, but I did not state where these citations and books can be found. Here I give where these books can be found, mostly from the 38 volume Schaff edition of the Church Fathers. In this updated analysis, at the end of this, I also give the links where these quotes can be found via the reference I give. This is to give easier access to people who want to research these quotes. Also, I have directly linked all of the Church Fathers in question to both the quote in question, and the other quotes that I found. This is to provide easier access for those who want to see specific Fathers.***
PROTESTANT SCHOLAR ADMITS NO SOLA FIDE
A) Clement of Rome
C) Justin Martyr
D) The author of the Epistle to Diognetus
You had sent me a response to a file I had sent you a while ago, and although my time is limited now, I did want to quickly clear up a common Catholic attack to us poor Protestants, that frankly, you should be ashamed for using. Your e-mail contained the statement that "for 15 CENTURIES NO ONE BELIEVED IN SOLA FIDE". Now will you be surprised to find out that this is categorically false?
I made my statement because it is categorically true. In 1500 years no one taught it, as will be evidenced by this response. What one should be ashamed for doing is calling Catholicism a cult, putting the Church that Christ founded in the same category as Jehovah Witnesses and Mormons. One of the reasons supposedly that Catholicism is a cult is because we disbelieve Sola Fide. Well, I will restate it. "for 15 CENTURIES NO ONE BELIEVED IN SOLA FIDE". Therefore, according to your theory, Christ set up a church where no one could be saved for 15 centuries. There was a total apostasy on the issue of salvation from the very beginning That theory is almost as bad as the Mormons, just 3 centuries earlier than their theory.
Below I have enclosed a recent letter to someone else who demanded I produce the evidence from history, which I did, and as usual, it leaves all Catholics speechless. I will be very interested in knowing if you will be a man of integrity and delete this erroneous belief where ever it may be contained on your website or anywhere else you may have trumpeted this claim.
This response shows that I am not speechless. I have not trumpeted it that much on my site, but this challenge makes me do so. After your prompting, this will in fact go on my site. The first thing I notice, that of all your quotations, not one of them gives a source, and when I asked you to give me the specific citations, you never responded. If I can not check (I do have 38 volumes of Church Fathers written by a Protestant publication, Philip Schaff), the citations are worthless, and I am surprised that the Catholics did not respond to you noting that fact. I note that these quotes are taken from James Buchanan, who in his book likewise just quoted, without providing specific citations makes it impossible to check the context of these quotes.
I do not even need to quote Catholic scholars to affirm that I was correct that nobody before Luther believed in Sola Fide. Before I get into the individual quotes, I will quote from an anti-Catholic, "Reformed Protestant" who likewise admits that Faith Alone is a totally new idea. Alistair McGrath, a foremost so-called "Reformed" Protestant scholar admits:
McGrath on justification and regeneration Iustitia Dei, Vol. 1
p. 182 "Although Luther regarded justification as an essentially unitary process, he nevertheless introduced a decisive break with the western theological tradition as a whole by insisting that, through his justification, man is intrinsically sinful yet extrinsically righteous."
p. 184 "The significance of the Protestant distinction between justification and regeneration is that a fundamental discontinuity has been introduced into the western theological tradition where none had existed before. Despite the astonishingly theological diversity of the late medieval period, a consensus relating to the nature of justification was maintained throughout. The Protestant understanding of the nature represents a theological novum, whereas its understanding of its mode does not."
p. 36 "Augustine demonstrates of iustitia, effected only through man's justification, demonstrates how the doctrine of justification encompasses the whole of Christian existence from the first moment of faith through the increase in righteousness before God and man, to the final perfection of that righteousness in the eschatological city. Justification is about being made just."
p. 185 "The medieval period was astonishingly faithful to the teaching of Augustine on the question of the nature of justification, where the reformers departed from it."
p. 186 "The essential feature of the Reformation doctrines of justification is that a deliberate and systematic distinction is made between justification and regeneration. Although it must be emphasized that this distinction is purely notional, in that it is impossible to separate the two within the context of the ordo sautis, THE ESSENTIAL POINT IS THAT A NOTIONAL DISTINCTION IS MADE WHERE NONE HAD BEEN ACKNOWLEDGED BEFORE IN THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE. A FUNDAMENTAL DISCONTINUITY WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE WESTERN THEOLOGICAL TRADITION WHERE NONE HAD EVER EXISTED, OR EVER BEEN CONTEMPLATED BEFORE. The Reformation understanding of the nature of justification - as opposed to its mode - must be regarded as a genuine theological novum."
p. 182 " Although Luther regarded justification as an essentially unitary process, he nevertheless introduced a decisive break with the western theological tradition as a whole by insisting that, through his justification, man is intrinsically sinful yet extrinsically righteous."
We see admissions from a well known, so-called "Reformed" Protestant thus, that my original statement is indeed correct. My integrity stands fully in tact, thank you. The view of the Church Fathers is What God declares, he makes righteous, unlike the Protestant view of declaration only. All church Fathers saw the pursuit of holiness (only done through God's grace) as necessary to achieve salvation, not just a nice byproduct of salvation. Another dagger to the Sola Fide (at least the Calvinist view) view is something I will leave out, but could most easily be demonstrated is the fact that all saw the sacraments as God's established means of salvation. Everyone believed in baptismal regeneration, and saw the Eucharist as intimately linked to justification. If I just quoted the Fathers on those areas, that would polish off the idea that they believed in Sola Fide. However, in this detailed response, I will show that the Fathers that you cited, all showed the Catholic view, that grace empowered works were necessary for salvation, and God makes, not only declares his children righteous. BTW, many "Reformed" Protestants try to make Augustine their hero, when he specifically wrote that works were necessary for salvation, when done in God's grace. And of course, he believed in Purgatory, and all the sacraments as also necessary. There are tons of Fathers I need not quote who also believe in the necessity of works.
In the quotes you gave, not one gave a hint of forensic justification. In the following quotations I will first give the Church Father quote that you gave, and then what he also wrote elsewhere to show that whatever he meant in these unverifiable quotes, it was not even close, with no real traces of Sola Fide at all, unless whatever he holds that you agree to is in agreement with Catholicism. I give lengthy quotations from Pope Clement of Rome (amusing that a Protestant will quote a Pope for reference) and St. Cyprian, and I will be less extensive but still fairly thorough with the others. This by no means is meant to be an exhaustive list, but this is what I could find going through my books and accessing the matching urls online.
"We are not justified through ourselves, neither through our own wisdom or understanding or piety or works we have done in holiness of heart, but through FAITH."
What does Pope Clement mean by faith? How about all of his statement in context?
POPE Clement of Rome, The First Epistle of Clement, Chapters 30-34, found in Philip Schaff and Henry Wace ed., ed. Alexander Roberts & James Donaldson, Anti-Nicene Fathers (Hereafter initialed as ANF), Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., Peabody, Massachusetts, 1994, Vol. 1, pp. 13-14:
CHAP. XXX.--LET US DO THOSE THINGS THAT PLEASE GOD, AND FLEE FROM THOSE HE HATES, THAT WE MAY BE BLESSED.
Seeing, therefore, that we are the portion of the Holy One, let us do all those things which pertain to holiness, avoiding all evil-speaking, all abominable and impure embraces, together with all drunkenness, seeking after change,(3) all abominable lusts, detestable adultery, and
execrable pride. "For God," saith [the Scripture], "resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble."(4) Let us cleave, then, to those to whom grace has been given by God. LET US CLOTHE OURSELVES WITH CONCORD AND HUMILITY, EVER EXERCISING SELF-CONTROL, STANDING FAR OFF FROM ALL WHISPERING AND EVIL-SPEAKING, BEING JUSTIFIED BY OUR WORKS, AND NOT OUR WORDS. For [the Scripture] saith, "He that speaketh much, shall also hear much in answer. And does he that is ready in speech deem himself righteous? Blessed is he that is born of woman, who liveth but a short time: be not given to much speaking."(5) Let our praise be in God, and not of ourselves; for God hateth those that commend themselves. Let testimony to our good deeds be borne by others, as it was in the case of our righteous forefathers. Boldness, and arrogance, and audacity belong to those that are accursed of God; but moderation, humility, and meekness to such as are blessed by Him.
CHAP. XXXI.--LET US SEE BY WHAT MEANS WE MAY OBTAIN THE DIVINE BLESSING.
Let us cleave then to His blessing, and consider what are the means(6) of possessing it. Let us think(7) over the things which have taken place from the beginning. For what reason was our father Abraham blessed? was it not BECAUSE HE WROUGHT RIGHTEOUSNESS AND TRUTH THROUGH FAITH?(8) Isaac, with perfect confidence, as if knowing what was to happen,(9) cheerfully yielded himself as a sacrifice.(10) Jacob, through reason(11) of his brother, went forth with humility from his own land, and came to Laban and served him; and there was given to him the sceptre of the twelve tribes of Israel.
Whosoever will candidly consider each particular, will recognize the greatness of the gifts which were given by him.(12) For from him have sprung the priests and all the Levites who minister at the altar of God. From him also [was descended] our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh. From him [arose] kings, princes, and rulers of the race of Judah. Nor are his other tribes in small glory, inasmuch as God had promised, "Thy seed shall be as the stars of heaven." All these, therefore, were highly honoured, and made great, not for their own sake, or for their own works, or for the righteousness which they wrought, but through the operation of His will. And we, too, being called by His will in Christ Jesus, are not justified by ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or understanding, or godliness, or works which we have wrought in holiness of heart; but by that faith through which, from the beginning, Almighty God has justified all men. Amen
CHAP. XXXIII.--BUT LET US NOT OWE UP THE PRACTICE OF GOOD WORKS AND LOVE. GOD HIMSELF IS AN EXAMPLE TO US OF GOOD WORKS.
What shall we do, then, brethren? Shall we become slothful in well-doing, and cease from the practice of love? God forbid that any such course should be followed by us! But rather let us hasten with all energy and readiness of mind to perform every good work. For the Creator and Lord of all Himself rejoices in His works. For by His infinitely great power He established the heavens, and by His incomprehensible wisdom He adorned them. He also divided the earth from the water which surrounds it, and fixed it upon the immovable foundation of His own will. The animals also which are upon it He commanded by His own word(16) into existence. So likewise, when He had formed the sea, and the living creatures which are in it, He enclosed them [within their proper bounds] by His own power. Above all,(17) with His holy and undefiled hands He formed man, the most excellent [of His creatures], and truly great through the understanding given him--the express likeness of His own image. For thus says God: "Let us make man in Our image, and after Our likeness. So God made man; male and female He created them." Having thus finished all these things, He approved them, and blessed them, and said, "Increase and multiply."(2) We see,(3) then, HOW ALL RIGHTEOUS MEN HAVE BEEN DORNED WITH GOOD WORKS, and how the Lord Himself, adorning Himself with His works, rejoiced. Having therefore such an example, let us without delay accede to His will, and LET US WORK THE WORK OF RIGHTEOUSNESS with our whole strength.
CHAP. XXXIV.--GREAT IS THE REWARD OF GOOD WORKS WITH GOD. JOINED TOGETHER IN HARMONY, LET US IMPLORE THAT REWARD FROM HIM.
The good servant(4) receives the bread of his labour with confidence; the lazy and slothful cannot look his employer in the face. It is requisite, therefore, that we be prompt in the practice of well-doing; for of Him are all things. And thus He forewarns us: "Behold, the Lord [cometh], and His reward is before His face, TO RENDER TO EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS WORK."(5) He exhorts us, therefore, with our whole heart to attend to this,(6) that we be not lazy or slothful in any good work. Let our boasting and our confidence be in Him. Let us submit ourselves to His will.
Preceding this section, Clement also wrote of Rahab's justification:
Chapter 12.-The Rewards of Faith and Hospitality. Rahab.
On account of her faith and hospitality, Rahab the harlot was saved. Chapter 48 says:
Let us therefore, with all haste, put an end to this [state of things]; and let us fall down before the Lord, and beseech Him with tears, that He would mercifully be reconciled to us, and restore us to our former seemly and holy practice of brotherly love. For [such conduct] is the gate of righteousness, which is set open for the attainment of life, as it is written, "Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will go in by them, and will praise the Lord: this is the gate of the Lord: the righteous shall enter in by it." Although, therefore, many gates have been set open, yet this gate of righteousness is that gate in Christ by which blessed are all they that have entered in and have directed their way in holiness and righteousness, doing all things without disorder.
Chapter 50 says:
Blessed are we, beloved, if we keep the commandments of God in the harmony of love; that so through love our sins may be forgiven us.
Conclusion - So we see that Clement's quote (the one quote that I could find) that you took was totally out of context. When he made the quote that you noted, we see that surrounding it before and after was the necessity of works done in God's grace for salvation. He was in the quote contrasting a self-righteous holiness to the holiness that must be done in God's grace. The one that did not justify, is when one tries to justify himself, relies on his own wisdom, holiness, etc. One indeed who works on one's own power is condemned by Trent, canon 1, justification. That is what Clement was condemning, and saying that does not avail before God. He specifically speaks of justification by works in Chapter 30. Notice though that those works are done in grace, as he specifically says in that same chapter. In Chapter 31 he says Abraham was blessed (and the context is speaking of justification), because of the act of offering Isaac on the altar. In chapter 34, Clement says that in justification it is requisite to our actions to be well-doing. He gives us two choices. To be a faithful servant, we labor (in grace of course) and we get the reward of heaven. However, if we are a slothful servant, and don't labor for God, we are sent to hell. Clement is obviously referring to Mt. 24:45-51. The slothful servant gets what? weeping and gnashing of teeth. That is hell. Why, because he didn't work. Then Clement says, he forewarns us he renders accoring to our works (Rom. 2:6, Mt. 16:27). If faith alone, he wouldn't forewarn us (because our justification would be absolutely assured), and we would not fear damnation. In Chapter 48 he speaks of those can attain salvation only those who direct their ways in holiness. Thus, that direction in holiness is a cause of justification. In Chapter 50 he notes that we must keep the commandments and that love (not faith alone) forgives sins. Clement notes that works are what must be judged before God to achieve salvation, and not even a hint of forensic justification, or Sola Fide.
"For His Cross, for His death, and His resurrection, and the FAITH which is through Him, are my unpolluted monuments, and in these...I am willing to have been justified."
Letter to Polycarp 6:2 "Be pleasing to him whose soldiers you are, and whose pay you receive. May none of you be found to be a deserter. Let your baptism be your armament, your faith your helmet, your love your spear, your endurance your full suit of armor. Let your works be as your
deposited withholdings, so that you may receive the back-pay which has accrued to you (ANF, Vol. 1, p. 95).
Letter to the Ephesians - Chapter 20 - Stand fast, brethren, in the faith of Jesus Christ, and in his love, in his passion, and in his resurrection. Do ye all come together in common, and individually, through grace, in one faith of God the Father, and of Jesus Christ, his only-begotten Son, and "the first-born of every creature, but of the seed of David according to the flesh, being under the guidance of the Comforter, in obedience to the bishop and the presbytery with an
undivided mind, breaking one and the same bread, which is the medicine of immortality, and the antidote which prevents us from dying, but a cleansing remedy driving away evil, (which causes) that we should live in God through Jesus Christ. (ANF, vol. 1, p. 57)
Letter to the Ephesians - Chapter 5 Let no man deceive himself; if any one be not within the altar, he is deprived of the bread of God.... Do ye beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, and the presbyters and the deacons. For he that is subject to these is obedient to Christ, who
has appointed them; but he that he is disobedient to these is disobedient to Christ Jesus. And "he that obeyeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him."(ANF, vol. 1, p. 51)
Letter to the Magnesians - Chapter 5 - Seeing then, all things have an end, there is set before us life upon our observance of God's precepts, but death as the result of disobedience, and every one, according to the choice he makes, shall go to his own place, let us flee from death, and make choice of life. The truly devout man is the right kind of coin, stamped by God himself. The ungodly man, again, is false coin, unlawful, spurious, counterfeit, wrought not by God, but by the devil. I do not mean to say that there are two different human natures, but that there is one humanity, sometimes belonging to God, and sometimes to the devil. If any one is truly religious, he is a man of God; but if he is irreligious, he is a man of the devil, made such, not by nature, but by his own choice. The unbelieving bear the image of the prince of wickedness. The believing possess the image of their Prince, God the Father, and Jesus Christ, through whom, if we are not in readiness to die for the truth into his passion, his life is not in us. (ANF, vol. 1, p. 61)
Conclusion - In Ignatius we have one who says that in order for one to attain eternal life we need to partake of the Eucharist and drive away, not cover, sin. We see the Catholic concept of merit as availing before God. One must partake of the sacrifice (note altar) of the Eucharist. One must obey the bishop in order to partake of eternal life. Then we see Ignatius say that if one wants to partake of eternal life, one must be obedient even until death. If one backslides and stays backslidden, the person is eternally lost. Not a hint of Sola Fide.
C)"No longer by the blood of goats...are sins purged, BUT BY FAITH, through the blood of Christ..."
First Apology 43 We have learned from the prophets and we hold it as true that punishments and chastisements and good rewards are distributed according to the merit of each man's actions. Were this not the case, and were all things to happen according to the decree of fate, there would be nothing at all in our power. If fate decrees that this man is to be good and that one wicked, then neither is the former to be praised nor the latter to be blamed. (ANF, vol. 1, p. 177)
Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 45 - Since those who did that which is universally, naturally, and eternally good are pleasing to God, they shall be saved through this Christ in the resurrection equally with those righteous men who were before them, namely Noah, and Enoch, and Jacob, and who have known this Christ, Son of God. (ANF, vol. 1, p. 217)
The First Apology of Justin - chapter 21 - And we have learned that those only are deified who have lived near to God in holiness and virtue; and we believe that those who live wickedly and do not repent are punished in everlasting fire. (ANF, vol. 1, p. 170)
The First Apology of Justin - chapter 12 - Each man goes to everlasting punishment or salvation according to the value of his actions. For if all men knew this, no one would choose wickedness even for a little, knowing that he goes to the everlasting punishment of fire. but would by all means restrain himself and adorn himself with virtue, that he might obtain the good gifts of God, and escape the punishments(ANF, vol. 1, p. 166).
The First Apology of Justin - chapter 16 For not those who make profession, but those who do the works, shall be saved, according to his word: "not everyone who saith to me Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. By their works ye shall know them and every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast in to the fire. (Mt. 7:17-21)" (ANF, vol. 1, p. 177)
Conclusion - St. Justin Martyr shows that one must do works in order to be saved. One must adorn himself with good works in order to be saved.. One must partake of God's divine nature and reflect God's holiness in their lives in order to attain everlasting life. Not a hint of Sola Fide.
For what, save His
righteousness, could cover our sins? In whom...could we be justified, save in the Son of God ALONE?"
The author of the Epistle to Diognetus 8 - He sought to form a mind conscious of righteousness, so that being convinced in that time of our unworthiness of attaining life through our own works, it should now, through the kindness of Gob, be vouchsafed to us; and having made it manifest that in ourselves we were unable to enter into the kingdom of God, we might through the power of God BE MADE ABLE. (ANF, vol. 1, p. 28)
The author of the Epistle to Diognetus 8 Having therefore convinced us in the FORMER TIME THAT OUR NATURE WAS UNABLE to attain to life, and having now revealed the savior who is able to save even those things which it was formerly impossible to save, by both these facts he desired to lead us to trust in his kindness, to esteem him our nourisher, Father, Teacher, counselor, Healer, our Wisdom , Light, Honour, Glory, Power, and Life, so that we should not be anxious concerning clothing and food.
He who takes upon himself the burden of his neighbour; he who, in whatsoever respect he may be superior, is ready to benefit another who is deficient; he who whatsoever thing he has received from God, by distributing these to the needy, becomes a god to those who receive his
benefits: he is an imitator of God. Then thou shalt see, while still on earth that God in the heavens rules over the universe; then thou shalt see, while still on earth that God in the heavens rules over the universe; then thou shalt begin to speak the mysteries of God; then shalt thou both love and admire those that suffer punishment because they will not deny God (ANF, vol. 1, p. 177)
Conclusion - In this very short letter, there is not much in regards to justification. But of what is there, we see that what justifies is a making just, not a mere declaring just. Our own righteousness and works without grace merits nothing before God (Trent, canon 1, justification).
God's grace does not merely cover us but makes us able. What was in the former nature unable to be just in God's sight is cleansed now by God's grace to merit justification. Nothing about a pile of dung just covered with snow (Luther). Not a hint of Sola Fide.
"If Abraham believed in God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness, then each one...who lives by faith, is found to be a righteous person..."
Treatise 1, On the Unity of the Catholic Church 15, 1st ed. [A.D. 251]).The Lord denounces [Christian evildoers], and says, 'Many shall say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Your name, and in Your name have cast out devils, and in Your name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity' [Matt. 7:21-23]. There is need of righteousness, that one may deserve well of God the Judge; we must obey His precepts and warnings, that our merits may receive their reward (ANF, vol. 5, p. 426).
Treatise 8, Works and Almsgivings 14 [A.D. 253You therefore, who are rich and wealthy, buy for yourself of Christ gold tried by fire; that you may be pure gold, with your filth burnt out as if by fire, if you are purged by almsgiving and righteous works. Buy for yourself white raiment, that you who had been naked according to Adam, and were before frightful and unseemly, may be clothed with the white garment of Christ. And you who are a wealthy and rich matron in Christ's Church, anoint your eyes, not with the collyrium of the devil, but with Christ's eye-salve, that you may be able to attain to see God, by deserving well of God, both by good works and character (ANF, vol. 5, p. 480).
Treatise, 8, Works and Almsgivings - 1. But, moreover, what is that providence, and how great the clemency, that by a plan of salvation it is provided for us, that more abundant care should be taken for preserving man after he is already redeemed! For when the Lord at His advent had cured those wounds which Adam had borne,(3) and had healed the old poisons of the serpent,(4) He gave a law to the sound man and bade him sin no more, lest a worse thing should befall the sinner. We had been limited and shut up into a narrow space by the commandment of innocence. Nor would the infirmity and weakness of human frailty have any resource, unless the divine mercy, coming once more in aid, should open some way of securing salvation by pointing out works of justice and mercy, so that by almsgiving we may wash away whatever foulness we subsequently
contract.(5) You therefore, who are rich and wealthy, buy for yourself of Christ gold tried by fire; that you may be pure gold, with your filth burnt out as if by fire, if you are purged by almsgiving and righteous works. Buy for yourself white raiment, that you who had been naked according to Adam, and were before frightful and unseemly, may be clothed with the white garment of Christ. And you who are a wealthy and rich matron in Christ's Church,43 anoint your eyes, not with the collyrium of the devil,44 but with Christ's eye-salve, that you may be able to attain to see God, by deserving well of God, both by good works and character (ANF, vol. 5, p. 480). .
Cyprian- Treatise 8, Works and Almsgiving - 2. The Holy Spirit speaks in the sacred Scriptures, and says, "By almsgiving and faith sins are purged."(Prov. 16:6) Not assuredly those sins which had been previously contracted, for those are purged by the blood and sanctification of Christ. Moreover, He says again, "As water extinguisheth fire, so almsgiving quencheth sin." (Sirach; 3:30) (Cyprian quotes from the Deuterocanonicals, reflecting the fact that these books rejected by Protestants were seen as Scripture)Here also it is shown and proved, that as in the layer of saving water the fire of Gehenna is extinguished, so by almsgiving and works of righteousness the flame of sins is subdued. And because in baptism remission of sins is granted once for all, constant and ceaseless labour, following the likeness of baptism, once again bestows the mercy of God. The Lord teaches this also in the Gospel. For when the disciples were pointed out, as eating and not first washing their hands, He replied and said, "He that made that which is within, made also that which is without. But give alms, and behold all things are clean unto you;"(8) teaching hereby and showing, that not the hands are to be washed, but the heart, and that the foulness from inside is to be done away rather than that from outside; but that he who shall have cleansed what is within has cleansed also that which is without; and that if the mind is cleansed, a man has begun to be clean also in skin and body. Further, admonishing, and showing whence we may be clean and purged, He added that alms must be given. He who is pitiful teaches and warns us that pity must be shown; and because He seeks to save those whom at a great cost He has redeemed, He teaches that those who, after the grace of baptism, have become foul, may once more be cleansed (ANF, vol. 5, p. 476).
Cyprian- Treatise 8, Works and Almsgiving - 5. The remedies for propitiating God are given in the words of God Himself; the divine instructions have taught what sinners ought to do, that by works of righteousness God is satisfied, that with the deserts of mercy sins are cleansed. And in Solomon we read, "Shut up alms in the heart of the poor, and these shall intercede for thee from all evil."(Sirach 29:12) And again: "Whoso stoppeth his ears that he may not hear the weak, he also shall call upon God, and there will be none to hear him."(Prov. 21:13) For he shall not be able to deserve the mercy of the Lord, who himself shall not have been merciful; nor shall he obtain aught from the divine pity in his prayers, who shall not have been humane towards the poor man's prayer. And this also the Holy Spirit declares in the Psalms, and proves, saying, Blessed is he that considereth of the poor and needy; the Lord will deliver him in the evil day."(Ps. 12:1) Remembering which precepts, Daniel, when king Nebuchodonosor was in anxiety, being frightened by an adverse dream, gave him, for the turning away of evils, a remedy to obtain the divine help, saying, "Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to thee; and redeem thy sins by almsgivings, and thine unrighteousness by mercies to the poor, and God will be patient(6) to thy sins."(Dan. 4:27) And as the king did not obey him, he underwent the misfortunes and mischiefs which he had seen, and which he might have escaped and avoided had he redeemed his sins by almsgiving. Raphael the angel also witnesses the like, and exhorts that alms should be freely and liberally bestowed, saying, "Prayer is good, with fasting and alms; because alms doth deliver from death, and it purgeth away sins."(Tobit 12:8, 9) (Cyprian quotes from a Deuterocanonical book as Scripture again) He shows that our prayers and fastings are of less avail, unless they are aided by almsgiving; that entreaties alone are of little force to obtain what they seek, unless they be made sufficient(9) by the addition of deeds and good works (ANF, vol. 5, p. 477).
Conclusion - Cyprian goes so far as to say that sins are purged by our works!!! Need any comment be made? How anybody can twist Cyprian to believe in Sola Fide? They obviously have not read Cyprian. No hint of Sola Fide.
"Not by these, i.e. works, but by FAITH, a man is
justified as was Abraham...IN NO OTHER MANNER can there be redemption..."
Festal letter 11, 338 AD. 7 - Hence meditation on the law is necessary, my beloved, and uninterrupted converse with virtue, 'that the saint may lack nothing, but be perfect to every good works[2 Tim. 3:17].' For by these things is the promise of eternal life, as Paul wrote to Timothy, calling constant meditation exercise, and saying, 'Exercise thyself unto godliness; for bodily exercise profiteth little; but godliness is profitable for all things, since it has the promise of the present life, and of that which is eternal Philip Schaff and Henry Wace ed. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series (Hereafter initialed as NPNP2), Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., Peabody, Massachusetts, 1994, Vol. 4, pp. 535) .'
Festal Letter 11. 10 For of these two things we speak of - faith and godliness-the hope is the same even everlasting life; for he saith, 'Fight the good fight of faith; lay hold on eternal life.' And 'exercise thyself unto godliness, for it hath the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.' (1 Tim. 4:7,8)….and when he has been practiced by exercise in godliness, he will lay hold on the confession of faith, which also Paul, after he had fought the fight, possessed, namely, the crown of righteousness which was laid up; which the righteous Judge will give, not to him alone, but to all who are like him (NPNP2, vol. 4, p. 536).
Festal Letter 14. 2 He purifies our souls, as Jeremiah the prophet says in a certain place, 'Stand in the ways and see, and enquire, and look which is the good path, and ye shall find in it cleansing for your souls (Jer. 6:16). Of old time, the blood of he-goats and the ashes of a
heifer, sprinkled upon those who were unclean, were fit only to purify the flesh; but now through the grace of God the Word, every man is thoroughly CLEANSED (NPNP2, vol. 4, p. 542) .
Incarnation of the Word - 56. 4 He is to come, no more to suffer, but thenceforth to render to all the fruit of his own cross, that is, the resurrection and incorruption; and no longer to be judged, but to judge all, by what each has done in the body, whether good or evil; where there is laid up for the good the kingdom of heaven, but for them that have done evil everlasting fire and outer darkness. For thus the Lord himself also says: "Henceforth ye shall see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming on the clouds of heaven in the glory of the Father. Matt. 25:31" (Matt's interjection - By the way, how anybody say they believe in the bible read Matt. 25:31-46 and believe in salvation by faith alone is beyond me)…For according to the blessed Paul: "We must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, that each one may receive according as he hath done in the body whether it be good or bad." (NPNP2, vol. 4, p. 66).
Conclusion - Faith is not just a trust and belief in Christ's righteousness, according to Athanasius. Faith is godliness. How one lives his life is what is judged and determinative of their final destiny before God in the final judgement, not merely whether one has received
Christ's imputed righteousness. God's grace purifies and that purification is what avails before God in the final judgment. Another aspect of Athanasius is that through God's grace man is divinized (actually made partakers of the divine nature, and that partaking of nature is intimately connected with justification) but not directly related so no quotations in that area. One thing, it is that Sola Fide is the farthest thing from Athanasius' mind. Not a hint of Sola Fide.
"This is the true and perfect glorying in God...to be justified by FAITH ALONE IN CHRIST..."
On Psalm 114, no. 5 - "Turn to your rest; for the Lord has been kind to you." Eternal rest awaits those who have struggled through the present life observant of the laws, not as payment owed for their works, but bestowed as a gift of the munificent God on those who have hoped in him. William Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers, The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota, 1979, p. 22.
On the Spirit, Chap. 16, 40 They, then, that were sealed by the Spirit unto the day of redemption,(7) and preserve pure anti undiminished the first fruits which they received of the Spirit, are they that shall hear the words "well done thou good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things."(8) In like manner they which have grieved the Holy Spirit by the wickedness of their ways, or have not wrought for Him that gave to them, shall be deprived of what they have received, their grace being transferred to others; or, according to one of the evangelists, they shall even be wholly cut asunder,(9)--the cutting asunder meaning complete separation from the Spirit (NPNP2, vol. 8, p. 25).
Letter 174 - Truly blessed is the soul, which by night and by day has no other anxiety than how, when the great day comes wherein all creation shall stand before the Judge and shall give an account for its deeds, she too may be able easily to get quit of the reckoning of life. For he who
keeps that day and that hour ever before him, and is ever meditating upon the defence to be made before the tribunal where no excuses will avail, will sin not at all, or not seriously, for we begin to sin when there is a lack of the fear of God in us.... Even while we are living this life in
the flesh, prayer will be a mighty helper to as, and when we are departing hence it will be a sufficient provision for us on the journey to the world to come (NPNP2, vol. 8, p. 220).
Conclusion - Faith Alone with Basil means that this faith must struggle along and by God's grace merit salvation. Prayer, and reliance upon the Spirit is a process that must be relied upon to achieve eternal life. Not a hint of Sola Fide.
"Without the works of the law, but by FAITH ALONE...there is therefore no need of the law, since through FAITH ALONE, an ungodly man is justified..."
Duties of the Clergy, Book 1, 11.39 - Further, he bestows more on thee than thou on him, since he is thy debtor in regard to thy salvation. If thou clothe the naked, thou clothest thyself with righteousness; if thou bring the stranger under thy roof, if thou support the needy, he procures for thee the friendship of the saints and eternal habitations. That is no small recompense. Thou sowest earthly things and receivest heavenly... Not again is nay one more blessed than he who is sensible to the needs of the poor, and the hardships of the weak and helpless. In the day of judgment he will receive salvation from the Lord. Whom he will have as his debtor for the mercy he has shown (NPNP2, vol. 10, p. 7).
Duties of the Clergy, Book 1, 15.57-58 Why do sinners have abundance of wealth and riches, and fare sumptuously, and have no grief or sorrow; whilst the upright are in want, and are punished by the loss of wives or children? Now, that parable to the gospel ought to satisfy persons like these; (Luke 16:19 ff) for the rich man was clothed in purple and fine linen, and dined sumptuously every day; but the beggar, full of sores, used to gather the crumbs of his table. After the death the two, however, the beggar was in Abraham's bosom in rest; the rich man was in torment. Is it not plain from this that rewards and punishments according to deserts await one after death? 58 And surely this is but right. For in a contest there is much labour needed-and after the contest victory falls to some, to others disgrace. Is the palm ever given or the crown granted before the course is finished? Paul writes well; He says: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing (2 Tim. 4:7-8)." In that day," he says he will give it-not here. Here he fought, in labours, in dangers, in shipwrecks, like a good wrestler; for he knew how that "through much tribulation we must enter into the kingdom of God." Matt. 5:3. Therefore no one can receive a reward, unless he has striven lawfully; nor is the victory a glorious one, unless the contest also has been toilsome (NPNP2, vol. 10, pp. 10-11).
Duties of the Clergy - Book 2, 2.5 But the sacred Scriptures say that eternal life rests on a knowledge of divine things and on the fruit of good works. The Gospel bears witness to both these statements. For the Lord Jesus spoke thus of knowledge: "This is eternal life, to know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ Whom Thou hast sent,"(Jn. 17:3) About works He gives this answer: "Every one that hath forsaken house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My Name's sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit everlasting life."(Mt. 19:29) (NPNP2, vol. 10, p. 44).
Concerning Repentance, Book 2. 5.35-36 But the apostles, having this baptism according to the direction of Christ, taught repentance, promised forgiveness, and remitted guilt, as David taught when he said: "Blessed are they whose transgressions are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord hath not imputed sin."(Psalm 32:1-4, quoted by Paul in Rom. 4:7-8) He calls each blessed both him whose sins are remitted by the font, and him whose sin is covered by good works. For he who repents ought not only to wash away his sin by his tears, but also to cover and hide his former transgressions by amended deeds, that sin may not be imputed to him. 36. Let us, then, cover our falls by our subsequent acts; let us purify ourselves by tears, that the Lord our God may hear us when we lament, as He heard Ephraim when weeping, as it is written: "I have surely heard Ephraim weeping." (Jer. 31:18) And He expressly repeats the very words of Ephraim: "Thou hast chastised me and I was chastised, like a calf I was not trained (Jer. 31:18)." (NPNP2, vol. 10, p. 350).
Conclusion - Ambrose obviously does not mean the Luther or Calvin version of Faith Alone. We see that the judgement of works is not just on who gets extra rewards for believers, but one's works determine whether one goes to heaven or one goes to hell. We also see a text that is often taken out of context by those who quote Paul in Romans, Romans 4:7-8, where Ambrose quoting the apostle as showing the necessity of good works!!! He even shows penance as necessary to wipe out past sin. And again it is only God's grace empowered works that avail before God. No hint of Sola Fide.
"Through FAITH, without the works of the law, the thief was justified...justified through his confession ALONE."
DE PRINCIPIIS, BOOK 3 1.6 The Saviour also saying, "I say unto you, Resist not evil;" and, "Whoever shall be angry with his brother, shall be in danger of the judgment;" and, "Whosoever shall look upon a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart;" and in issuing certain other commands,--conveys no other meaning than this, that it is in our own power to observe what is commanded. And therefore we are rightly rendered liable to condemnation if we transgress those commandments which we are able to keep. And hence He Himself also declares: "Every one who hears my words, and doeth them, I will show to whom he is like: he is like a wise man who built his house upon a rock," etc. So also the declaration: "Whoso heareth these things, and doeth them not, is like a foolish man, who built his house upon the sand," etc. Even the words addressed to those who are on His right hand, "Come unto Me, all ye blessed of My Father," etc.; "for I was an hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me drink," manifestly show that it depended upon themselves, that either these should be deserving of praise for doing what was commanded and receiving what was promised, or those deserving of censure who either heard or received the contrary, and to whom it was said, "Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire (Mt. 25:34, etc.)" Let us observe also, that the Apostle Paul addresses us as having power over our own will, and as possessing in ourselves the causes either of our salvation or of our ruin: "Dost thou despise the riches of His goodness, and of His patience, and of His long-suffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to
repentance? But, according to thy hardness and impenitent heart, thou art treasuring up for thyself wrath on the day of judgment and of the revelation of the just judgment of God, who will render to every one according to his work: to those who by patient continuance in well-doing
seek for glory and immortality, eternal life; while to those who are contentious, and believe not the truth, but who believe iniquity, anger, indignation, tribulation, and distress, on every soul of man that worketh evil, on the Jew first, and (afterwards) on the Greek; but glory, and honour, and peace to every one that doeth good, to the Jew first, and (afterwards) to the Greek." You will find also innumerable other passages in holy Scripture, which manifestly show that we possess freedom of will. Otherwise there would be a contrariety in commandments being given us, by observing which we may be saved, or by transgressing which we may be condemned, if the power of keeping them were not implanted in us (ANF, Vol. 4, p. 306).
DE PRINCIPIIS, BOOK 3 1.20 Whether it is possible for the apostle to contradict himself? And if this cannot be imagined of an apostle, how shall he appear, according to them, to be just in blaming those who committed fornication in Corinth, or those who sinned, and did not repent of their unchastity, and fornication, and uncleanness, which they had committed? How, also, does
he greatly praise those who acted rightly, like the house of Onesiphorus, saying, "The Lord give mercy to the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: but, when he had come to Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me. The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day." Now it is not consistent with
apostolic gravity to blame him who is worthy of blame, i.e., who has sinned, and greatly to praise him who is deserving of praise for his good works; and again, as if it were in no one's power to do any good or evil, to say that it was the Creator's doing that every one should act virtuously or wickedly, seeing He makes one vessel to honour, and another to dishonour. And how can he add that statement, "We must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one of us may receive in his body, according to what he hath done, whether it be good or bad? "
For what reward of good will be conferred on him who could not commit evil, being formed by the Creator to that very end? or what punishment will deservedly be inflicted on him who was unable to do good in consequence of the creative act of his Maker? Then, again, how is not
this opposed to that other declaration elsewhere, that "in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and of earth, and some to honour, and some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the Master's use, prepared unto every good work." He, accordingly, who purges himself, is made a vessel unto honour, while he who has disdained to cleanse himself from his impurity is made a vessel unto dishonour. From such declarations, in my opinion, the cause of our actions can in no degree be referred to the Creator. For God the Creator makes a certain vessel unto honour, and other vessels to dishonour; but that vessel which has cleansed itself from all impurity He makes a vessel unto honour, while that which has stained itself with the filth of vice
He makes a vessel unto dishonour. The conclusion from which, accordingly, is this, that the cause of each one's actions is a pre-existing one; and then every one, according to his deserts, is made by God either a vessel unto honour or dishonour. Therefore every individual vessel has furnished to its Creator out of itself the causes and occasions of its being formed by Him to be either a vessel unto honour or one unto dishonour(ANF, Vol. 4, p. 324).
Conclusion - Origen spends a lot of time in this section showing that one's judgment showing free will but most of all how this free will gives people the ability to provide actions that will either merit salvation or condemnation. Judgment is based on actions. Not a hint of Sola Fide.
"When an ungodly man is converted, God justifies him THROUGH FAITH ALONE."
Jerome - hmm, does Sola Fide show a need for Purgatory? Let us see whether Jerome agrees (or even comes close) with the Protestant concept of Sola Fide.
Commentary on Psalms 18, 66, 24, Just as we believe there are eternal torments for the devil and all the naysayers and impious persons who say in their heart: "There is not God." So too, for sinners and impious persons who are, nevertheless, Christians, whose works are to be tried in
the fire and purged, we think that the sentence of the Judge will be tempered and blended with clemency.
Against Jovinianus, Book 2, 22 - To the Corinthians he says: (1 Cor. 3:6-15) "I have planted, Apollos watered: but God gave the increase. So then, neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth: but God that giveth the increase. Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour. For we are labourers together with God, ye are God's husbandry, ye are God's building." And again elsewhere: "According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise master-builder I laid a foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let each man take heed how he buildeth thereupon. For other foundation can no man lay, than thai which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. But if any man buildeth on the foundation, gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, stubble: each man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall reveal it, because it is revealed in fire: and the fire itself shall prove each man's work of what sort it is. If any man's work shall abide which he built thereon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as through fire." If the man whose work is burnt and is to suffer the loss of his labour, while he himself is saved, yet not without proof of fire: it follows that if a man's work remains which he has built upon the foundation, he will be saved without probation by fire, and consequently a difference is established between one degree of salvation and another (ANF, Vol. 6, p. 405).
Against Jovianianus Book 2, 22 - As day is distinct from night, so righteousness and unrighteousness, sin and good works, Christ and Antichrist cannot blend. If we give Christ a lodging-place in our hearts, we banish the devil from thence. If we sin and the devil enter through the gate of sin, Christ will immediately withdraw. Hence David after sinning says: 2]"Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation," that is, the joy which he had lost by sinning. "He who saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him." Christ is called the truth: "I am the way, the truth, and the life." In vain do we make our boast in him whose commandments we keep not (ANF, Vol. 6, p. 388) .
Against Jovianianus Book 2, 3 - For it is not accordant with the righteousness of God to forget good works, and the fact that you have ministered and do minister to the Saints for His name's sake, and to remember sins only. The Apostle James also, knowing that the baptized can be tempted, and fall of their own free choice, says: "Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he hath been approved, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to them that love him." And that we may not think that we are tempted by God, as we read in Genesis Abraham was, he adds: "Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, and He Himself tempteth no man. But each man is tempted when he is drawn away by his own lust and enticed. Then the lust, when it hath conceived, beareth sin: and the sin, when it is full grown, bringeth forth death." God created us with free will, and we are not forced by necessity either to virtue or to vice. Otherwise, if there be necessity, there is no crown. As in good works it is God who brings them to perfection, for it is not of him that
willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that pitieth and gives us help that we may be able to reach the goal (ANF, Vol. 6, p. 388).
Against Jovianianus Book 2, 3 - As in good works it is God who brings them to perfection, for it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that pitieth and gives us help that we may be able to reach the goal: so in things wicked and sinful, the seeds within us give the impulse, and these are brought to maturity by the devil. When he sees that we are building upon the foundation of Christ, hay, wood, stubble, then he applies the match. Let us then build gold, silver, costly stones, and he will not venture to tempt us: although even thus there is not sure and safe possession . For the lion lurks in ambush to slay the innocent. Sirach 37:5 "Potters' vessels are proved by the furnace, and just men by the trial of tribulation." And in another place it is written: Sirach 2:1 "My son, when thou comest to serve the Lord, prepare thyself for temptation." Again, the same James says:James 1:22 "Be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only. For if any one is a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a mirror: for he beholdeth himself, and goeth away, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was." It was useless to warn them to add works to faith, if they could not sin after baptism.(ANF, Vol. 6, p. 389-390).
Conclusion - The fact that St. Jerome believes in purgatory should do away with any concept of Sola Fide. If one is in God's grace he must avoid mortal sins to achieve eternal life, and good works is necessarily tied to salvation. In order to keep Christ and salvation, we must stay faithful to him. God gives us the grace to maintain this state of grace, but there is a real possibility of losing one's salvation. He even quotes Romans 9, a passage used by Calvinists often, to show this very possibility. BTW, a side note, St. Jerome, who is often quoted by some as saying he doesn't believe that the Deuterocanonical books should be used as Scripture, actually quotes Sirach as proof of the necessity of works. So much for him not seeing the Deuterocanonical books as Scripture. So much for any concept of Sola Fide.
K) Anselm: "If God would justify you, say, 'Lord, I plead the death of our Lord Jesus Christ between me and thy judgment....cover thyself with this ALONE."
L) Bernard: "Being justified by FAITH ALONE, he shall have peace with God."
L) Bernard: "Being justified by FAITH ALONE, he shall have peace with God."
I do not have in book form the writings of these two saints, but as I have conclusively demonstrated, when the Fathers use the term faith, and even Faith alone, it means Faith working in love (Gal. 5) that is obedient (Rom. 1:5, 6:16, 16:26) and this obedience is necessary for salvation. I have spent enough time on demonstrating the utter falsity of the assertion that Sola Fide was remotely in the mind of any of the Fathers mentioned. McGrath, Norm Geisler and Ralph McKenzie (all Protestant Apologists) have surveyed their writings (Bernard, Anselm) and they conclude likewise that Sola Fide was not a development, but a totally new idea in the 16th century. The fact that St. Bernard is a doctor of the church makes me doubt very seriously that he believed in anything like Sola Fide.
"Catholic Answers" distributes a tract I have before me, called "Seven Darned Tough Questions" wherein they make the statement that, "The doctrine of justification by faith alone originated with Luther. NO ONE (emphasis theirs) believed it before he proposed it." We may now lay that pathetic statement in the nearest coffin, and hammer it shut please, with ten horse nails for good measure.
The statement is thus vindicated and I hope you now encourage Catholic Answers now to spread more of these tracts, and forward these tracts to any who believe otherwise.
Update on sources for these quotes:
Most of the citations for the Fathers that I found come from the 38 volume: Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., Peabody, Massachusetts, 1995. This 38 volume series is divided into three sections: There are 10 volumes of: Anti-Nicene Fathers; 14 volumes of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, first Series ; and 14 volumes of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second Series. The citations given here are from the Anti-Nicene edition and the 2nd Series of the Nicene and Post-Nicene edition. I have the books at home, but the full series is actually found online here.
http://www.ccel.org/fathers2 Each of the Fathers cited, who have quotes from the NPNF2, or ANF Schaff citations can be found online through that series with the volume cited. (Except for Vol. 10 of the Anti-Nicene Series, which is the index of all the writings. The indexes for the individual books, which was instrumental to my ability to do this research, is not available online. That is only available with the book series. The book series can be purchased here: Christian Book Distributors):
© 1998 DID ANY CHURCH FATHERS TEACH SOLA FIDE? RESPONSE TO A CHALLENGE ....by Matt1618... This text may be downloaded or printed out for private reading, but it may not be uploaded to another Internet site or published, electronically or otherwise, without express written permission from the author.
Last modified August 13, 2002.
Last modified August 13, 2002.